The following are the longest crude oil pipelines in the world:
Eastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline: 4,857km
The Eastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (ESPOOP) is a 4,857km project operated by Russian oil transportation company Transneft. Construction of the pipeline began in 2006 near the town of Taishet in the Irkutsk oblast in central Siberia, and will connect Taishet to Kozmino on the eastern Siberian coast through two pipelines connected at Skovorodino near the northern Chinese border.
Druzhba Pipeline: 4,000km
The Druzhba pipeline is said to be one of the world’s longest oil pipeline currently completed. Druzhba runs from Almetyevsk in central Russia to Schwedt in northern Germany, incorporating 20 pumping stations along the way. Construction of the pipeline cost around $5.92m and consists of nearly 730,000t of pipe. It has a maximum capacity of 1.2-1.4 million barrels of oil per day, with work currently underway to increase this in the section between Belarus and Poland.
Keystone Pipeline: 3,456km
Running from the Keystone Hardisty terminal in Alberta, Canada to the Patoka Oil Terminal Hub in Illinois, US, the Keystone Pipeline transports up to 830,000 barrels of oil per day.
Since its construction, two more phases have been completed, which effectively connect Alberta to Houston, Texas, through joining points at Steele City, Nebraska and Cushing, Oklahoma.
The fourth phase, known as Keystone XL, was designed to connect Albert to Steele City, via a shorter route through Morgan, Montana. However, this phase has been hit with several delays due to protests from environmental groups and the US Environmental Protection Agency over the sensitive terrain and the increased risk of oil spills.
Kazakhstan-China Pipeline: 2,798km
The Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline connects Atyrau on the Kazakh Caspian Sea to Xianjing in central China. It is considered to be China’s first direct oil import pipeline from central Asia, carrying 20 million tonnes of oil, or 142 million barrels per year.
The pipeline is supplied by both the Aktobe region oil fields and the Kumkol field in Kazakhstan, as well as by the offshore Kashagan field in the Caspian Sea. It is also used to transport oil from Russia’s western Siberia to the Atasu oil terminal in the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan.